The rare linguists to be itself interested in the maori (Cook islands) a long time analyzed this language through the prism of traditional descriptions of our European languages. They theirs imposed a certain number of frameworks préconstruits, grids of reflection, inspired of the metalanguage and Indo-European grammatical classifications. Regarding these traditional descriptions as a form of glottocentrism, linguistic research that it has been French-speaking or anglophone tent for a few years to leave this yoke with it is necessary to acknowledge it more or less happiness. The question arises particularly with regard to grammatical categorization. The well-known categories that are the verb, the name, the adjective... have in these languages of the borders much more permeable. Certain lexemes can thus be used as noun, adjective, verb according to the marker who accompanies it. In the same way, the frequent use of sentences described like not-verbal, make say to certain linguists who this language is a language without verbo-nominal oppostion.

Personal deictics

As in the majority of the languages of Oceania, one finds in maori the distinction between the duel and plural like that between the inclusive one and the exclusive one


With: I, me; Kua kai with I you ika : I ate fish;
Ka 'aired with the ki you 'api' I apopo : I will go to school tomorrow; Ka 'arote with the inana' I, No you ua ra, kua 'akakore with the : I was yesterday plowing (the field), but I had to give up because it rained.
Koe : you, you; Kua kai koe I you ika : you ate fish; Kua kino ia koe to matou motoka : You broke our car; KB koe 'oki, you tangata your you 'akava E kimi nei : You are the man that the police force seeks.

'Aia: it, him, it; Kua kai 'aia I you ika : il/elle the fish ate; 'Does Ea' have aia I 'ventilated May I.E.(internal excitation)? : Why did it/it come (E)? ; Kare aia I konei : il/elle is not



Taua : inclusive, us two (inclusive: you and me); Kua kai taua I you ika : We (you and me) ate fish; ventilated taua : Allons-y; KB to taua taeake tera ake : Our friends arrive
Maua : us two, (exclusive: he/it and me); Kua kai maua I you ika : We (him/it and me) ate fish; Ka 'oki maua my Taria ki you kainga : Taria and me let us return on our premises; No maua will tera 'are : This house is ours

Korua : you two; Kua kai korua I you ika : You two ate fish; Ventilated korua : Go ahead; Na korua teia puka : This book belongs to you to both

Raua : they, they (two); Kua kai raua ite ika : They two ate fish; Mei 'ea May raua? : Where were you both? ; KB raua KB Pa tei no' O ki you kainga : He (or it) and Pa remained on their premises


Tatou : Us (inclusive: you - 2 or more - and me); Ko' have ta tatou E tiaki nei : Who wait? ; Kare a tatou kai toe : We do not have any more food
Matou : us (exclusive: they, they and me); KB matou my Tepaeru I 'ventilated May I.E.(internal excitation) : We came with Tepaeru; Kua kite May koe ia matou : You saw us

Kotou : You all; E 'ventilated atu kotou, ka aru atu with the : Leave in front of, I am to you; KB kotou KB 'have ma I ventilated I.E.(internal excitation) ki you tautai? : With which are you parties to fish?

Ratou : They, they, them (more than two); Kua pekapeka ratou KB Teia : They quarreled with Teaia; No ratou you pupu maro' iro' I : They have the strongest team


There are four series ('have 'ea-a' has 'ia) relating respectively to the identity, the localization (space and temporal), the nature of the subject and the number or the quantity. Those then will combine with a whole series of markers to produce a multitude of semantic nuances

Series of 'have: questioning on the identity
Ko' have? : who? , which (lle)? which? Which? For the name of the people, animals, places, months but neither days nor years; Ko' have koe? : who are you? ; Ko' have to' or ingoa? Is Which your name? ; Ko' have ia kotou tei tuatua ana? : Which among you spoke?
No' ai/Na' have? : With which? , of which? by which? ; No 'have teia avoids? : With which is this hat? ; Na' have I kave May ia koe ki you pure? Na taku mama : Who you ace taken along to the church? My mom.

Series of the 'ea: questioning on the localization (space or temporal)
Tei'ea ? : Where? , at which place? ; Tei'ea koe ? : Where are you? ; Tei'ea ra taku mama ? Me tei'ea : Where can be my mother well? I do not know.
Na'ea/No'ea : by which place? , how? (idea of place); ventilated Ka 'korua na' ea? : By where did it come? ; I na 'ea koe I you tunu' anga ite vararoa? I na you ngutupa : How (by which place) you entered the house? By the door.

Ki 'ea : where? In which direction? ; ventilated Te 'nei koe ki' ea? : Where do you go? ; Kua 'apai koe ki 'ea? : Where did you take?

Mei'ea : From where? Of which origin? ; Mei' ea May koe? : From which do you come? , Where were you?

Ko'ea : Which? which? (For the place names); Ko' ea teia nga' I? : Which is this place?

Pe'ea ? : How? , How? ; Pe'ea koe ? : How are you? ; I pe' ea 'ia E koe 'has Taka I aue I.E.(internal excitation) ? How did you make to make cry Taka?

A'ea ? : When? ; A' ea you pa' i E tae May? : When the boat T will arrive?

KB a' ea? : Towards where? ; KB a' ea teia nga' I? : Towards where this place is?

Series of a' a: Questioning on the gasoline, the nature or the characteristics of the subject
Ea' has? : What? , What? What? ; Ea' has to' U teima' has? : Which is your weight? ; Ea' has 'oki ta' with the ka 'inangaro? : What do you want of other?

Ia' has : What? , What? What? (with an idea of accomplished); I' a' has ana kotou? : What did you make?

Eia' has...? 'Ea' has... (I.E.(internal excitation))/'ea' has to you mea... (I.E.(internal excitation)) /No a' has you?: : why, for which reason? ; Ea' has koe I aue I.E.(internal excitation)? For which reason do you cry? : 'Does Ea' have you mea I kapiki I.E.(internal excitation) koe iaia? : Why the called ace you? ; Eia' has koe kia kite? : What do you want to know? for which reason do want you to know that? ; Eia' has tena pi' has? : What can you agree to make this box?

Mei you a' has to you roa : Since when? Since how long? (insinuation why?); Mei you 'a' has to you roa ia koe ki konei? Mei you rima meneti : Since how long do you find you here? Since five minutes; Mei you a' has to you roa I to' or no' o' anga ki Aitutaki? : How long did you remain in Aitutaki? ; Mei you a' has May koe? : That ace you make (since all this time)

Series of the 'ia: questioning on the number, the quantity
Ka 'ia/'E' ia : How much? ; Ka 'ia pute will kopara I ki I teianei? Ka rima nga'uru : How much bags of copra were filled? fifty; Ka 'ia ena? Ka 'ia ra : How much are they? A certain number
E 'ia a' with the tamariki? : How much, children do you have? ; E 'ia Papa aini? 'E 'itu paved : How much money with Papa? He has seven dollars: E 'ia tangata tei tae May? 'E 'ia 'ua : How much people came? Enough little

Te'ia : In which order? , how much? ; Te 'ia vaka tei tae May? Te toru : To which place did arrive the dugout? It arrived the third


Like the majority of the languages of Polynesia, the rarotongien is characterized by two types of possession (A and O) generally described like "weak" and "strong" The possession in "A" is used when the owner has control on the relation, is higher or dominating than this one or when the possession is regarded as transferable. The possession in "O" is used when the owner does not have any control on the relation, lower or is subordinated to this one, or when the possession is regarded as inalienable.
the "A" is used for

any transportable object
food or the drink,
the husband, the wife, the girl, the son
the animals
the people of lower row
Te puaka a tera vain : the pig belongs to this woman

A Tere tamariki : Children of Tere

Kare a Tupe ma ika I napo : Tupe and they his did not have fish yesterday evening

Taku/Ta' with/Tana/Ta taua/Ta maua.... : my, my, mine, mine/your, your, the tien, hold it/its, its, it his, his

KB taku vain teia : It is my wife

KB tana tane will tera : It is her husband

Ta kotou 'apinga : Your business

Ta Tere 'apinga : Businesses of Tere

O east uses for:

part of a unit
feelings, characters
the building, transport
the clothes
parents and the family (neither the husband, neither L wife, nor children....)
individuals considered as superiors
Te 'are o Tere : The house belonging to Tere

O Tere avoids : The hat of Tere

Kare o Tina no' O anga E no' O I.E.(internal excitation) : Tina does not have nowhere where to sit down

Toku; To' or; Tona; To taua; To maua...: my, my, mine, mine/your, your, the tien, hold it/its, its, it his, his...

KB toku 'are teia : It is my house

I toku manako, ka tika tana : With my opinion, it rightly

Teia toku, tera to' or : This is with me, that is with you

Some deictics
Te: , one (E)

Kua tae May you toroka: the truck passed

Kare I you 'anga' anga ngaro: It is not a secret thing

Teia : this, this, this, this (near to the speaker)

Teia avoids: this hat

Teia nga avoids: these some hats

Teia with avoids: these many hats

'Does Ea' have teia? What is it? What it last?

Teia with! : Me here! It is me!

Tena : this, this, this, that (near to the interlocutor)

Tena ta' with the kai? : Do you have your food with you?

'Does Ea' have koe I 'ventilated 'ua May I.E.(internal excitation) mei tena you tu? : Why did you come like that (e.g. with your working clothes)?

Me kake atu kotou ki ATU I you 'enua, tena ka tae May 'has Puna Ariki I you 'aravei ia kotou: When you arrive on this ground, the Puna chief will come to your meeting

E no' O May, E tena tangata keia: Stop there, robber!

Tera : this, this, this, that (far away from the interlocutor in time or space)

No 'have tera 'are: With which belongs this house?

Ventilated Ka 'ratou mei tera oire ki tera oire: They will go from a village to another

Kare I will reira you mata' iti, I tera May E I tera May mata' iti ratou I soft I.E.(internal excitation) I you kapu: They did not gain the cut this year there, but they gained it the following year then still that according to.

Taua : This, this, this (which is not present at the moment when it is question)

KB tera taua tangata: It is the man (of the situation)

Kare taua tuatua I you tika: This history is not true

Soft Kua taua manu ta' ae ruffle: This wild beast was caught

Konei : here, close to me

Kare aia I konei: il/elle is not there

Does Mei you 'a' have to you roa ia koe ki konei? Mei you rima meneti: Since how long do you find you here? Since five minutes

Kona : there, close to you

Ka meitaki 'ua kia vao' O koe I kona: It would be better if you started from there

Mei ko 'aia ki kona: It came where you are


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